# Mathematics for Machine Learning Specialization

Mathematics for Machine Learning. Learn about the prerequisite mathematics for applications in data science and machine learning

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### What you will learn

Implement mathematical concepts using real-world data

Derive PCA from a projection perspective

Understand how orthogonal projections work

Master PCA

## Skills you will gain

## About this Specialization

## Applied Learning Project

Through the assignments of this specialisation you will use the skills you have learned to produce mini-projects with Python on interactive notebooks, an easy to learn tool which will help you apply the knowledge to real world problems. For example, using linear algebra in order to calculate the page rank of a small simulated internet, applying multivariate calculus in order to train your own neural network, performing a non-linear least squares regression to fit a model to a data set, and using principal component analysis to determine the features of the MNIST digits data set.

No prior experience required.

No prior experience required.

### There are 3 Courses in this Specialization

### Mathematics for Machine Learning: Linear Algebra

In this course on Linear Algebra we look at what linear algebra is and how it relates to vectors and matrices. Then we look through what vectors and matrices are and how to work with them, including the knotty problem of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and how to use these to solve problems. Finally we look at how to use these to do fun things with datasets - like how to rotate images of faces and how to extract eigenvectors to look at how the Pagerank algorithm works.

### Mathematics for Machine Learning: Multivariate Calculus

This course offers a brief introduction to the multivariate calculus required to build many common machine learning techniques. We start at the very beginning with a refresher on the “rise over run” formulation of a slope, before converting this to the formal definition of the gradient of a function. We then start to build up a set of tools for making calculus easier and faster. Next, we learn how to calculate vectors that point up hill on multidimensional surfaces and even put this into action using an interactive game. We take a look at how we can use calculus to build approximations to functions, as well as helping us to quantify how accurate we should expect those approximations to be. We also spend some time talking about where calculus comes up in the training of neural networks, before finally showing you how it is applied in linear regression models. This course is intended to offer an intuitive understanding of calculus, as well as the language necessary to look concepts up yourselves when you get stuck. Hopefully, without going into too much detail, you’ll still come away with the confidence to dive into some more focused machine learning courses in future.

### Mathematics for Machine Learning: PCA

This intermediate-level course introduces the mathematical foundations to derive Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a fundamental dimensionality reduction technique. We'll cover some basic statistics of data sets, such as mean values and variances, we'll compute distances and angles between vectors using inner products and derive orthogonal projections of data onto lower-dimensional subspaces. Using all these tools, we'll then derive PCA as a method that minimizes the average squared reconstruction error between data points and their reconstruction.

### Offered by

#### Imperial College London

Imperial College London is a world top ten university with an international reputation for excellence in science, engineering, medicine and business. located in the heart of London. Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.

## Frequently Asked Questions

What is the refund policy?

If you subscribed, you get a 7-day free trial during which you can cancel at no penalty. After that, we don’t give refunds, but you can cancel your subscription at any time. See our full refund policy.

Can I just enroll in a single course?

Yes! To get started, click the course card that interests you and enroll. You can enroll and complete the course to earn a shareable certificate, or you can audit it to view the course materials for free. When you subscribe to a course that is part of a Specialization, you’re automatically subscribed to the full Specialization. Visit your learner dashboard to track your progress.

Is financial aid available?

Yes, Coursera provides financial aid to learners who cannot afford the fee. Apply for it by clicking on the Financial Aid link beneath the "Enroll" button on the left. You'll be prompted to complete an application and will be notified if you are approved. You'll need to complete this step for each course in the Specialization, including the Capstone Project. Learn more.

Can I take the course for free?

When you enroll in the course, you get access to all of the courses in the Specialization, and you earn a certificate when you complete the work. If you only want to read and view the course content, you can audit the course for free. If you cannot afford the fee, you can apply for financial aid.

Is this course really 100% online? Do I need to attend any classes in person?

This course is completely online, so there’s no need to show up to a classroom in person. You can access your lectures, readings and assignments anytime and anywhere via the web or your mobile device.

How long does it take to complete the Specialization?

3/4 hours a week for 3 to 4 months

What background knowledge is necessary?

High school maths knowledge is required. Basic knowledge of Python can come in handy, but it is not necessary for courses 1 and 2. For course 3 (intermediate difficulty) you will need basic Python and numpy knowledge to get through the assignments.

Do I need to take the courses in a specific order?

We recommend taking the courses in the order in which they are displayed on the main page of the Specialization.

Will I earn university credit for completing the Specialization?

This is a non-credit Specialization.

What will I be able to do upon completing the Specialization?

At the end of this Specialization you will have gained the prerequisite mathematical knowledge to continue your journey and take more advanced courses in machine learning.

More questions? Visit the Learner Help Center.